Possibilities and Limitations in Metropolitan Street Maintenance in Winter (Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen im Grossstaedtischen Winterdienstbetrieb),
COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER N H
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Urban street maintenance in winter is especially complicated by concentrated traffic load, spatial narrowness, intersections, pedestrian walkways and overpasses. It consists in clearing and surface treatment spreading salt, sand, etc. at busy and dangerous locations. Construction firms are used for clearing operations. In Munich winter street maintenance covers 26 million sq m of roadway, 800 km of sidewalk, 28,000 pedestrian crossings, and approximately 3500 individual sites. Expenditures in winter 19691970 for November to April are shown in diagram form snow removal, sand and salt truck use, sand and salt consumption, labor, output value. Costs totaled 11 million DM for this extremely severe winter. Thus economically acceptable upper critical value was reached.
- Civil Engineering