Turbulent Boundary Layers on Rough Walls.
SPECTRON DEVELOPMENT LABS INC COSTA MESA CALIF
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The influence of wall roughness on the alteration of the characteristics of the turbulent boundary layer to produce increased heat transfer and skin friction during re-entry is examined. Attention is restricted to roughness heights which are small compared with the boundary layer thickness. It is shown that rough wall transfer rates can be calculated almost as reliably as for smooth walls provided that the geometry of the roughness is known. In this regard it is pointed out that models of roughness effects for use in finite-difference boundary layer calculation procedures should be in the form of drag coefficients and sub-layer Stanton numbers to be applied as slip values at a characteristic roughness height use of mixing length models of turbulent transport with nonzero wall values is shown to have serious shortcomings. The effect of heat conduction through roughness elements is demonstrated and the implications with respect to the validity of existing sub-layer Stanton number correlations are discussed. A thorough review of the pertinent literature is included with the view towards making this report a self contained treatment of the subject.
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