Behavior of Concrete Exposed to the Sea
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS
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Research on the factors affecting durability of concrete in marine exposures has yielded a body of data for minimizing sea water deterioration of concrete. Further work is needed to fully elucidate the interacting roles of various constituents of cement with the chloride and sulfate ions of sea water. Additional research is also needed on the several mechanisms that may accelerate the corrosion of ferrous metal embedded in concrete exposed to the sea. The use of portland cements containing less than 8 percent tricalcium aluminate as calculated from the chemical analysis will normally prevent deleterious sulfate attack. It is indicated that the benefits of having some tricalcium aluminate present are related to the tendency of this component to combine also with chlorides and thus reduce the rate at which chloride ions may become available at the interface with reinforcing steel to promote corrosion. Further research is needed to interrelate the physical parameters of pore structure with the chemical parameters. If cost were not an important objective in preparing specifications for concrete, it would be possible to specify concrete materials, mixtures, and construction practices which, would provide virtually complete assurance that deterioration of the concrete over any desired service life, at least for up to 100 years could be avoided. It is believed that through use of practical specifications and practical inspection and control measures, deterioration of concrete exposed to the sea can be kept within limits so that only acceptable maintenance costs will be required.
- Ceramics, Refractories and Glass