Electroslag Remelting and Plasma Arc Melting.
NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD (NAS-NAE) WASHINGTON D C
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An assessment is made of the electroslag remelting ESR and plasma arc melting PAM technologies used in the United States in manufacturing a variety of materials and sizes of ingots. Significant metal quality improvements in surface condition, mechanical properties, solidification, structure cleanliness, and yield over air-melted material have accelerated ESR usage, particularly abroad. PAM has potential in recycling scrap, producing complex alloys, large monocrystals of refractory metals and their alloys, and independent control of heat input and metal feed. ESR has found steels, providing features such as desulfurization, retention of volatile alloying elements, and the capability to produce shaped ingots and castings.
- Metallurgy and Metallography
- Fabrication Metallurgy