U. S. Army Helicopter Modified Fuel Development Program - Review of Emulsified and Gelled Fuel Studies.
SOUTHWEST RESEARCH INST SAN ANTONIO TEX ARMY FUELS AND LUBRICANTS RESEARCH LAB
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The report describes the general physical characteristics of the pumpable, high-internal-phase-ratio emulsified fuels developed as part of this research program and explains apparently anomalous flow behavior in terms of rheological effects identified during the program. The studies described in this report established that the crash-fire-safety properties of volatile fuels such as JP-4 could not be significantly improved by emulsification or gellation with presently developed additives. Experimental studies demonstrated that low-volatility JP-8 and Jet A-1 fuels possess fire safety advantages over JP-4 fuel however, in fuel misting situations, liquid JP-8 appears to be no safer than liquid JP-4. On the other hand, high-internal-phase-ratio rigid emulsions of JP-8 retain their fire-safety advantage over liquid JP-4 fuel in mist-forming situations. Hence, emphasis in the research program conducted after 1969 was placed on the use of JP-8, JP-5, and Jet A-1 fuels. Flammability experiments demonstrated that the low-consistency gelled Jet A-1 fuel developed by FAA would not produce mist fires under the conditions of the tests employed. Its compatibility with UH-IDH fuel system components was better than that of emulsions, but it was observed that this fuel thickened substantially upon exposure to a quiescent water layer, apparently because of selective extraction of gel-thinning ingredients by the water phase.
- Combustion and Ignition