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Cold Weather Construction Materials Part 1. Regulated-Set Cement for Cold Weather Concreting
ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG MS
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The U.S. Army carries on construction projects in localities such as Alaska, the northern tier of the United States, northern Europe, Greenland and other arctic sites where the concrete placing season is shortened considerably by the cold climate. At ambient temperatures below 50 F, concreting operations become considerably more expensive since U.S. Army Corps of Engineers specifications require freshly mixed and placed concrete to be protected from ambient temperatures. This report covers part of an investigation to locate and evaluate existing and new cementing materials that allow concrete to be placed at ambient temperatures as low as 15 F. A newly developed cement termed regulated-set cement, which is an accelerated set cement, appeared to have great promise and was selected for study in this stage of the investigation. Both mortars and concretes made with regulated-set cement were studied with the following results 1 The longer freshly mixed regulated-set cement concrete remains above freezing before exposure to below freezing temperatures the greater the subsequent early strength gain however, considerable strength gain was exhibited by specimens exposed at 15 F immediately after casting. Specimens protected one hour before exposure exhibited almost as much strength at 28 days age as specimens cured at 70 or - 3 F for the full time and 2 The heat development in 3-, 6-, and 12-in.-thick slabs exposed at 15 F immediately after casting peaked in one to two hours at 46.5, 58 and 69 F, respectively, and remained above freezing long enough to gain considerable strength.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE