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VAR and ESR: Do They Measure Up
WATERVLIET ARSENAL NY
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Large gun tube forgings are presently produced from statically-cast electric arc furnace steel ingots. Vacuum Arc Remelting VAR and Electroslag Remelting ESR are two secondary refining processes applied to conventionally produced steel. A comparison of VAR and ESR is made with basic electric arc steelmaking, via a review of current literature. These refining processes greatly improve the structure and properties of low alloy steel. Gas and inclusion contents are lowered, and mechanical properties and soundness are improved. VAR is a simpler and more developed process than ESR, but the latter is more flexible and versatile. In addition ESR produces a much higher yield.
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