Optical Communications between Underwater and Above-Surface (Satellite) Terminals
NAVAL ELECTRONICS LAB CENTER SAN DIEGO CA
Pagination or Media Count:
A multiple scattering model is used and extended to characterize the channel between underwater and airborne satellite terminals at optical frequencies. The effects of the airsea interface are also included with approximate solutions accurate for elevation angles above 45 degrees. The results are presented in terms of a radiance function which is related to the transform of the spatial covariance function mutual coherence function. The primary losses are shown to be a result of the water absorption coefficient and not the extinction coefficient. The scattering losses can be isolated from the absorption losses and for certain cases, in which the receiver is embedded in the scattering medium, can be completely recovered. New components may be required to achieve this performance. The effects of ocean roughness are shown to have a minimal effect upon subsurface reception while causing possible beam steering of subsurface transmission. Although substantial losses are experienced, duplex operation can be achieved at modest data rates.
- Lasers and Masers
- Optical Detection and Detectors
- Non-Radio Communications