Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Bubble-Induced Water Jet Impinging on an Ice Surface.
COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB HANOVER N H
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Winter freezing temperatures have posed many problems in certain regions for navigation, and for maintenance of structures in water. During long, cold winters many lakes, harbors, ports and rivers become covered with ice, greatly shortening the navigation period. In attempts to solve this problem, air-bubbler devices have been developed which operate on the principle that warm subsurface water can be brought to the surface by a stream of air bubbles rising through the otherwise quiescent bodies of water. The first air bubbler system was installed in 1917 at the Keokuk Dam, and since that time a number of similar usages have been reported. To the best of the authors knowledge, no prior laboratory work has been done regarding the heat transfer characteristics of a bubble-driven jet impinging on an ice surface. This work is also considered to be useful in destratifying lakes and artificial water reservoirs for control and upgrading of our water resources. The present study investigated the problem experimentally. The effects of column height, diameter and air bubbling rate on the rate of heat transfer were determined.
- Fluid Mechanics