Accession Number:



Fighting with Allies: Integrating Multinational Formations in Large-Scale Combat Operations

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Monograph]

Corporate Author:

US Army School for Advanced Military Studies

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



In December 1944, the German Army launched the Ardennes counteroffensive, creating command relationship challenges for the Anglo-American Alliance that forced the First and Ninth US Armies to task organize under the British 21 Army Group. With the counteroffensive halted in January 1945, First Army reverted to US 12th Army Group control, while Ninth Army remained under 21 Army Groups control until the conclusion of the Rhineland Campaign, when it returned to the 12th Army Group. What can commanders and staffs of todays US Army learn from the coordination, cooperation, and integration of the US Ninth Army under the British 21 Army Group while conducting large scale combat operations during WWII As the US Army shifts its focus back to large scale combat operations, it must realize that future conflicts will require multinational cooperation. Therefore, commanders and staff officers must identify the elements of a successful integration prior to the change in task organization. While the strict application of rules developed from studying history is dangerous territory, the example provided by the past can help inform decisions made in the future.

Subject Categories:

  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]