Accession Number:



I Corps in the Liberation of Luzon: Lessons in Multi-Domain Operations Within Littoral Environments

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Monograph]

Corporate Author:

U.S. Army Command and General Staff College

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



The prevailing notion that the Marine Corps will be able to handle the amphibious assault requirements and then transition Army forces into the theater to assume ground operations may not be possible in future wars. If required to move troops into an anti-access and area denial A2AD environment, the luxury of ports of debarkation secured by forward presence forces may also not be readily available. The Marines could rapidly become fully committed, requiring Army support. These potential conditions require that the Army to rebuild amphibious assault capabilities to meet the challenges of multi-domain operations MDO in the Pacific littorals as a member of the joint force. Tension currently exists within Army doctrine of the perceived role of Army forces about its responsibilities within Joint Forcible Entry Operations JFEO. Army doctrine focuses on airborne and air assault operations, while joint doctrine specifically identifies the Army and the Marines responsible for serving as landing forces within amphibious assaults. As demonstrated in the Mike I operation during the World War II liberation of Luzon, fighting an enemy in well-prepared island positions requires a well-trained force capable of integrating multi-domain capabilities to overcome adversary strengths. The I Corps utilized the MDO tenets of calibrated force posture and convergence, enabled through multi-domain command and control to defeat the Japanese throughout the Luzon campaign. Time may not be available to train and develop an amphibious assault capable MDO force in the future, necessitating the need to reestablish the capacity for amphibious assaults within the Army now.

Subject Categories:

  • Humanities and History
  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]