Accession Number:



Expecting Different Results: How to Train Multi-domain Capable Divisions

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Monograph]

Corporate Author:

School for Advanced Military Studies Army Command and General Staff College

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



The US Army must adjust its large-scale training exercises to achieve initial operating capacity for Multi-Domain Operations MDO by 2028. MDO represents a significant shift from how the US Army has operated since 2010, and therefore exercises must adjust to prepare large units for MDO. The monograph answers the following questions What are the similarities between the Interwar Period, and 2020-2030 How were Interwar Period exercises and subsequently current exercises planned, and administered How does MDO differ from previous operating concepts And, can the US Army achieve initial operating capacity for MDO in 2028 by incorporating lessons identified from Interwar Period exercises into current exercises Analysis of historical texts, doctrine, journal articles, other research, and fictional books informed the synthesis presented. Conclusions include the current decade is similar to the Interwar Period. Conceptually training exercises follow the same path they did almost eighty years ago. And, the US Army built MDO with different assumptions than previous operating concepts. Three potential areas of improvement are increasing the use of the live environment, extending exercise duration, and providing commanders more flexible authorities within the space and cyber domain during exercises.


Subject Categories:

  • Military Forces and Organizations
  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]