Accession Number:



Assessing the Potential for Bias in PFAS Concentrations during Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Technical Report]

Corporate Author:

OREGON STATE UNIV CORVALLISGeosyntec Consultants, Inc. CDM Smith, Inc. Jacobs Engineering Group Inc.

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



This report provides science-based recommendations to minimize sampling bias while limiting unnecessary costs and efforts associated with overly conservative sampling recommendations or procedures. The examination of potential bias was motivated by widespread assumptions that PFAS can be introduced during or after sampling due to cross-contamination from field equipment and materials used during sample collection, as well as PFAS transformation in the laboratory during sample storage, even when standard field procedures are followed. This report summarizes the scientific state of knowledge regarding the potential for bias in PFAS sampling, presents findings of new research conducted under this Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program SERDP project ER19-1205, and provides scientifically based guidelines for practical field sampling equipment and procedures to minimize the potential for bias.


Subject Categories:

  • Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods
  • Water Pollution and Control

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]