Accession Number:



Impact of Anti-Access Area Denial Threats on Future Combat Operations

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Monograph]

Corporate Author:

U.S. Army School for Advanced Military Studies

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



Future combat will occur in all domains and at greater ranges and speed than seen in previous conflicts. This is particularly true concerning modern developments in complex Integrated Air Defense Systems and Anti-Access Area Denial strategies. Russias anti-access strategy in Kaliningrad poses a significant threat to US operations in the Baltics. Additionally, Chinas power projection throughout the South China Sea presents a challenging hurdle for air operations in the Pacific. This monograph seeks to determine what lessons can be learned from Operation Linebacker II, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and Operation Allied Force. Most importantly it addresses what information gleaned from these campaigns can imply about future A2AD issues in the next war. Planners and analysts must learn to overcome these operational and strategic challenges presented by complex air defense systems. The paper begins with a vignette detailing the first B-52 loss in Vietnam and the North Vietnamese use of the SA-2 surface-to-air missile in an area denial role. Less than a year later, the 1973 Yom Kippur War provides countless examples of how the robust Egyptian IADS presented a substantial challenge for the Israeli Air Force. Further examination of Yugoslavias use of mobile surface-to-air missiles in 1999 details the way in which these systems can continue to contest the paradigm air force. Finally, this paper will illustrate the complex nature of a modern IADS and the reasons why it presents substantial issues for the joint force.


Subject Categories:

  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
  • Humanities and History

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]