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Electrically Detected Electron Nuclear Double Resonance in Solid State Electronics

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[Technical Report, Final Report]

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During the past four years we have worked to develop electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance EDENDOR. The conventional resonance technique known as electron nuclear double resonance ENDOR has been an exceptionally powerful tool in the study of the immediate surroundings of defects in semiconductors and insulators for quite some time. Unfortunately, conventional ENDOR has never been very useful in the study of semiconductor device problems because it has a sensitivity typically two to three orders of magnitude less than that of the sensitivity of the conventional electron paramagnetic resonance EPR technique upon which it is based. Since conventional EPR sensitivity is about 10exp 10 total electron spins within the sample under study, conventional ENDOR sensitivity is, at best, about 1012 total defects. This number is far too large for studies of defects within meaningful micro or nano technology devices. The technique of electrically detected magnetic resonance EDMR offers a possible solution to the sensitivity limits of ENDOR.EDMR sensitivity is about seven orders of magnitude more sensitive than that of conventional EPR, around 1000 total defects with considerable effort. By combining the sensitivity of EDMR with ENDOR we hoped to develop a new technique with all of the analytical power of ENDOR and a sensitivity so greatly enhanced that it would allow meaningful measurements in micro and nanotechnology scale devices. In this effort we have been largely successful, demonstrating EDENDOR, for the first time, in a fully processed semiconductor device, a pn junction diode. We have also demonstrated EDENDOR in thin films of amorphous hydrogenated silicon and thin films of amorphous boron. It should be pointed out that our work does not constitute the first observation of electrically detected ENDOR. Two other studies were published previously, neither involving a fully processed device and both involved relatively weak ENDOR responses.

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  • Electricity and Magnetism

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[A, Approved For Public Release]