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Immunohistochemical Phenotype Analysis of Cells Associated with Pulpal Mineralized Extracellular Matrix in a Porcine Endodontic Regeneration Model

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[Technical Report, Master's Thesis]

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Introduction Early apical mineralization responses following regeneration therapy remain to be fully characterized, partially due to limited availability of larger animal models. The aims were to evaluate a young porcine model for the study of endodontic regenerative treatment, and to compare via immunohistochemistry the early cellular and mineralizing events occurring at the apex following therapies utilizing BiodentineTM Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France and Pro-Root MTATMDentsply Sirona, Tulsa, OK.Methods Immunohistochemical techniques were used to characterize cell populations and mineralized tissues in samples previously obtained from a study utilizing a young porcine model for endodontic regeneration in which mandibular first and second premolars in five pigs 3 months old received regenerative treatment. Teeth were divided into five treatment groups One treated with blood clot without bioceramic Two treated with blood clot and MTA Three treated with blood clot and Biodentine Four treated with MTA without blood clot positive control and Five no treatment positivenegative control. Samples were harvested after a three-week healing period, fixed in formalin, evaluated radiographically, and processed for histology. Sections were stained immunohistochemically for mineralized matrix markers,2including dentin sialophosphoprotein, osteocalcin, osteopontin, cementum-attachment protein, osterix, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Results The blood clot treatment groups and MTABiodentine treatment groups demonstrated extensive areas of active hard tissue matrix formation on the canal walls, resembling cellular cementum-like deposition extending from the apex, with high levels of cementoblast-like cell activity. Conclusions A cementum-like mineralization of potential clinical benefit can occur in the apical root region following endodontic regenerative treatment.

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[A, Approved For Public Release]