Accession Number:



Agent Transparency for an Autonomous Squad Member: Depth of Reasoning and Reliability

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Technical Report]

Corporate Author:

DEVCOM Army Research Laboratory

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



Agent transparency is an important contributor to effective human agent teaming. However, agent transparencys effects on human performance when the agent is unreliable have yet to be examined. This report examines how the transparency and reliability of a robotic autonomous squad member ASM affected a human observers task performance, workload, situation awareness SA, trust in the robot, and perceptions of the robot. In a 2 ASM transparency 2 ASM reliability within-subject design experiment, participants monitored a simulated soldier squad that included an ASM as it traversed a simulated training environment, while concurrently monitoring the environment for targets. There was no difference in participants performance on the target detection task, workload, or SA due to either ASM transparency or reliability. ASM reliability influenced participant trust and perceptions of the robot. Results suggest that reliability may be a stronger influence on the humans perceptions of the robot than transparency. Robot errors had a profound and lasting effect on the participants perception of the robots future reliability and resulted in reduced confidence in their assessments of the robots reliability. These findings could have important implications for the continued use of automated systems when the user is aware of system errors.

Subject Categories:

  • Cybernetics

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]