Prevalence of Chronic Multisymptom Illness/Gulf War Illness Over Time Among Millennium Cohort Participants, 2001 2016
Journal Article - Open Access,01 Jan 2001,31 Dec 2016
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER SAN DIEGO CA SAN DIEGO United States
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Background Chronic multisymptom illnessGulf War illness CMIGWI is the defining illness of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. However, few studies have examined how the prevalence of CMIGWI changes over time among Gulf War veterans compared to reference groups not deployed to the Gulf War. Method The current analysis examined prevalence of CMIGWI across five time points collected between 2001 and 2016. Gulf War veterans were compared to non-deployed Gulf War era personnel and personnel not in service during the Gulf War. Non-linear mixed modeling was used to estimate the impact of time and Gulf War deployment on odds of CMIGWI. An unexpectedly strong associations of CMIGWI with mental health conditions prompted post hoc analyses among participants with no reported mental and physical health conditions. Results Gulf War veterans had the highest prevalence of CMIGWI at baseline and this increased prevalence persisted across the study period. Odds of CMIGWI increased over time and this increase was slightly more rapid for non-deployed Gulf War era personnel relative to Gulf War veterans. No substantive differences in the associations between CMIGWI and Gulf War deployment were observed in models stratified bysex and raceethnicity. Additionally, excluding participants with mental and physical health conditions did not substantively change the association between Gulf War deployment and CMIGWI. Conclusions Prevalence of CMIGWI increased substantially over time for all groups studied. Relative to reference groups, Gulf War veterans have an increased prevalence of CMIGWI that persists across time.
- Medicine and Medical Research