Accession Number:



Nonstate Actors and Anti Access/Area Denial Strategies: The Coming Challenge

Descriptive Note:

Technical Report

Corporate Author:

U.S. Army War College Carlisle United States

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



This monograph explores the emerging challenge of nonstate actors anti-access and area denial A2 AD strategies and their implications for the United States and its allies. This monograph starts from one major development the historical monopoly of states over precision-guided munitions has eroded, and this evolution eventually challenges the ability of the most advanced militaries to operate in certain environments. Questioning the type of strategy that nonstate actors may implement as they gain greater access to advanced military technology, the research argues some of these groups increasingly lean toward A2 AD strategies. The analysis focuses on two regions, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where case studies include Hezbollah in Lebanon, Hamas in the Gaza Strip, the Houthis in Yemen, and separatist groups in Ukraine. Three key parameters are underlined to assess emerging nonstate A2AD strategies a political shift toward the preservation of the status quo vis-vis opponents, a significant focus of military resources dedicated to A2AD capabilitiesprimarily missiles and rockets, and finally, a consequential adaptation of the military units responsible for the implementation of this new strategy.

Subject Categories:

  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
  • Defense Systems

Distribution Statement: