Accession Number:



Environmentally Benign Black Smoke Formulations in Pyrotechnics

Descriptive Note:

Technical Report,01 Aug 2008,31 Aug 2009

Corporate Author:

U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine Aberdeen Proving Ground United States

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Report Date:


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This Environmental Health Assessment is part of an ongoing effort to assess the human health and environmental impact of items of Army materiel during the development process. The objective of the program is to reduce the human health and environmental impact of newly developed Army end items with concomitant reductions in overall costs, without sacrificing performance. The naphthalene and perchlorate present in the current TITAN system have resulted in training restrictions, including the cessation of their use at ranges located in California. The benign Black Smoke formulation replaces naphthalene and perchlorate and has been evaluated in light of the current environmental laws and policies. The two dyes, Solvent Green 3 and Disperse Red 9, are of moderate concern due to possible inhalation toxicity. The remaining substances in the formulation are of negligible concern because they exhibit low toxicity, are combusted during use, or are used in small quantities. We recommend that the development of the benign Black Smoke formulation be continued.

Subject Categories:

  • Toxicology
  • Environmental Health and Safety

Distribution Statement: