Development, Test, and Evaluation of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Systems in a Simulated Wide Area Search Scenario: An Implementation of the Autonomous Systems Reference Architecture
Technical Report,01 Sep 2019,26 Mar 2020
AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB United States
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The implementation and testing of autonomous and cooperative unmanned sys-tems is challenging due to the inherent design complexity, infinite test spaces, and lack of autonomy specific measures. These challenges are limiting the USAFs ability to deploy and take advantage of tactical and strategic advantages offered by these systems. This research instantiates an Autonomous System Reference ArchitectureASRA on a Wide Area Search WAS scenario as a test bed for rapid prototyping and evaluation of autonomous and cooperative systems. This research aims to pro-vide a framework to evaluate the systems ability to achieve mission and autonomy objectives, develop reusable autonomous behaviors, and develop reusable cooperative decision making algorithms. For this research and application to the WAS mission, metrics of autonomy were derived from literature requirements for autonomous sys-tems implementing reactive architectures and control responsiveness, robustness, and perception accuracy. Autonomous behaviors, to include more complex behaviors combining simple atomic behaviors were developed, and a variety of cooperative decision rules were defined. The subsequent evaluation implemented a face centered cubic design of experiments over four scenarios including a single vehicle, and three levels of cooperation between two vehicles. Following a rigorous test plan, the tests were conducted in simulation implementing automated testing and expedited analysis. The test results were used to create a response surface model to characterize the system and conduct multiple response optimization to determine an optimal configuration that maximizes area searched, percent detected, and perception accuracy in a given target density.
- Pilotless Aircraft