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Operation Joint Endeavor: V Corps in Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1995-1996: An Oral History

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Technical Report

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US Army Combined Arms Center Fort Leavenworth United States

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The Dayton Peace Accords, signed on 14 December 1995, formally ended the ethnic and religious conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina and established a framework for full implementation of the provisions of the peace settlement.1 The following day, the UNSC United Nations Security Council adopted UNSC Resolution 1031, which authorized the NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization to establish a multinational IFOR Implementation Force under unified command and control2 to help ensure compliance with the provisions of the Dayton Peace Accords. This NATO IFOR would operate under the authority and subject to the direction and political control of the NAC North Atlantic Council through the NATO chain of command.3 The deployment of the IFOR, with a one-year mandate, was designated OJE Operation JOINT ENDEAVOR and marked the first major out-of-area peace enforcement operation in the alliances half-century history. Moreover, this complex and challenging military operation included for the first time since World War II, American and Russian soldiers operating as allies, a feat unthinkable only six years earlier before the Berlin Wall fell in 1989. On 5 December 1995, NATO foreign ministers approved military planning for IFOR, which called for over 60,000 military personnel to serve in the NATO-led IFOR. More than 32 countries, including all NATO countries, thirteen PFP Partnership for Peace nations, and four other nations agreed to contribute forces to IFOR. The United States, United Kingdom, and France provided the largest national contingents. All forces served under OPCON operational control of NATO, with the exception of the Russian contingent. This contingent served OPCON directly to the SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander-Europe, which was in charge of NATO military forces and also under TACON Tactical Control of the commanding general, US 1st Armored Division.

Subject Categories:

  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
  • Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies
  • Humanities and History

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