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The Cardiopulmonary Effects of Sodium Fluoroacetate (1080) in Sprague-Dawley Rats

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Journal Article - Open Access

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Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense Aberdeen Proving Ground United States

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Sodium fluoroacetate 1080 is a highly toxic metabolic poison that has the potential because of its lack of defined color, odor, and taste and its high water solubility to be intentionally or unintentionally ingested through food adulteration. Although the mechanism of action for 1080 has been known since the 1950s, no known antidote exists. In an effort to better understand the cardiopulmonary impacts of 1080, we utilized whole-body plethysmography and telemeterized Sprague-Dawley rats which allowed for the real-time measurement of respiratory and cardiac parameters following exposure using a non-invasive assisted-drinking method. Overall, the animals showed marked depression of respiratory parameters over the course of 24 hours post-exposure and the development of hemorrhage in the lung tissue. Tidal volume was reduced by 30 in males and 60 in females at 24 hours post-exposure, and respiratory frequency was significantly depressed as well. In telemeterized female rats, we observed severe cardiac abnormalities, highlighted by a 50 reduction in heart rate, 75 reduction in systolic blood pressure, and a 3.5-fold lengthening of the QRS interval over the course of 24 hours. We also observed a reduction in core body temperature of nearly 15 deg. C. Our study was able to describe the severe and pronounced effects of sodium fluoroacetate poisoning on cardiopulmonary function, the results of which indicate that both tissue specific and systemic deficits contribute to the toxicological progression of 1080 intoxication and will need to be accounted for when developing any potential countermeasure for 1080 poisoning.

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  • Toxicology

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