A Meta Analysis of Physiological Changes during Water Immersion for Incorporation into Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models (PBPK) of Chemical Exposures in Occupational Divers
NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT (DAYTON) WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB
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Physiological changes that occur with water immersion have been previously characterized however, these reviews rely on specific studies to support, illustrate and exemplify such changes. Among the large number of studies that have investigated the physiology of water immersion, nearly all are based on small numbers of research subjects tested under a wide range of experimental treatment conditions. Therefore, the possibility exists that the physiological changes reported by any single study are limited to only the specific conditions under which the study was conducted and for the limited number of subjects studied. Hence, a different experimental protocol or a different population of subjects could yield different, and, in fact inconsistent finding are commonplace. The objective of this investigation was to conduct a quantitative analysis of the literature on physiological changes associated with water immersion. The purpose was to systematically address the issue that water immersion studies have been performed under a wide range of experimental conditions, as described in the many published reports cited herein. The objective of this study was to enable construction of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic PBPK models for chemical exposures resulting from occupational diving in contaminated waters. In this initial phase of our investigation we have conducted a systematic literature search that yielded approximately185 published papers on the relationship between water immersion and physiological response. Each study was evaluated for applicable data on several key physiological parameters affecting chemical absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Treatment conditions, subject meta-data and mean physiological data were manually extracted from each study.
- Marine Engineering
- Anatomy and Physiology