Understanding AI Technology
Joint Artificial Intelligence Center (JAIC) The Pentagon United States
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Many officials throughout the Department of Defense are asked to make decisions about AI before they have an appropriate understanding of the technologys basics. This guide will help. The DoD AI Strategy defines AI as the ability of machines to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. This definition includes decades-old DoD AI, such as aircraft autopilots, missile guidance, and signal processing systems. Though many AI technologies are old, there have been legitimate technological breakthroughs over the past ten years that have greatly increased the diversity of applications where AI is practical, powerful, and useful. Most of the breakthroughs and excitement about AI in the past decade have focused on Machine LearningML, which is a subfield of AI. Machine Learning is closely related to statistics and allows machines to learn from data. The best way to understand Machine Learning AI is to contrast it with an older approach to AI, Handcrafted Knowledge Systems. Handcrafted Knowledge Systems are AI that use traditional, rules-based software to codify subject matter knowledge of human experts into a long series of programmed if given x input, then provide y output rules. For example, the AI chess system Deep Blue, which defeated the world chess champion in 1997, was developed in collaboration between computer programmers and human chess grandmasters. The programmers wrote literally typed by hand a computer code algorithm that considered many potential moves and countermoves and reflected rules for strong chess play given by human experts.