Quantum Dots and Gold Nanoparticles as Scaffolds for Enzymatic Enhancement: Recent Advances and the Influence of Nanoparticle Size
Journal Article - Open Access
NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON United States
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Nanoparticle scaffolds can impart multiple benefits onto immobilized enzymes including enhanced stability, activity, and recoverability. The magnitude of these benefits is modulated by features inherent to the scaffold-enzyme conjugate, amongst which the size of the nanoscaffold itself can be critically important. In this review, we highlight the benefits of enzyme immobilization on nanoparticles and the factors affecting these benefits using quantum dots and gold nanoparticles as representative materials due to their maturity. We then review recent literature on the use of these scaffolds for enzyme immobilization and as a means to dissect the underlying mechanisms. Detailed analysis of the literature suggests that there is a sweet-spot for scaffold size and the ratio of immobilized enzyme to scaffold, with smaller scaffolds and lower enzymescaffold ratios generally providing higher enzymatic activities. We anticipate that ongoing studies of enzyme immobilization onto nanoscale scaffolds will continue to sharpen our understanding of what gives rise to beneficial characteristics and allow for the next important step, namely, that of translation to large-scale processes that exploit these properties.
- Medicine and Medical Research