Accession Number:

AD1095365

Title:

Cassiosomes are Stinging Cell Structures in the Mucus of the Upside Down Jellyfish Cassiopea Xamachana

Descriptive Note:

Journal Article - Open Access

Corporate Author:

NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON United States

Report Date:

2020-02-01

Pagination or Media Count:

15.0

Abstract:

Cheryl L Ames, Anna Klompen et al. describe cassiosomes, stinging cell structures in the mucus of the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana. They show that these motile cell masses consist of an outer epithelial layer largely composed of nematocytes surrounding centralized clusters of endosymbiotic dinoflagellates.Snorkelers in mangrove forest waters inhabited by the upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea xamachana report discomfort due to a sensation known as stinging water, the cause of which is unknown. Using a combination of histology, microscopy, microfluidics, videography, molecular biology, and mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we describe C. xamachana stinging-cell structures that we term cassiosomes. These structures are released within C. xamachana mucus and are capable of killing prey. Cassiosomes consist of an outer epithelial layer mainly composed of nematocytes surrounding a core filled by endosymbiotic dinoflagellates hosted within amoebocytes and presumptive mesoglea. Furthermore, we report cassiosome structures in four additional jellyfish species in the same taxonomic group as C. xamachana Class Scyphozoa Order Rhizostomeae, categorized as either motile ciliated or nonmotile types. This inaugural study provides a qualitative assessment of the stinging contents of C. xamachana mucus and implicates mucus containing cassiosomes and free intact nematocytes as the cause of stinging water

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Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE