Toward fast, low-noise charge-coupled devices for Lynx
Journal Article - Open Access
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington United States
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Lynx requires large-format x-ray imaging detectors with performance at least as good as the best current-generation devices but with much higher readout rates. We are investigating an advanced charge-coupled device CCD detector architecture under development at MIT Lincoln Laboratory for use in the Lynx high-definition x-ray imager and x-ray grating spectrometer instruments. This architecture features a CMOS-compatible detector integrated with parallel CMOS signal processing chains. Fast, low-noise amplifiers and highly parallel signal processing provide the high frame rates required. CMOS-compatibility of the CCD enable slow-power charge transfer and signal processing. We report on the performance of CMOS-compatible test CCDs read at pixel rates up to 5.0 Mpix s1 50 times faster than Chandra ACIS CCDs, with transfer clock swings as low as 1.0-V peak-to-peak powergate-area comparable to ACIS CCDs at 100 times the parallel transfer rate. We measure read noise of 4.6 electrons RMS at 2.5 MHz and x-ray spectral resolution better than150-eV full-width at half maximum at 5.9 keV for single-pixel events. We report charge transfer efficiency measurements and demonstrate that buried channel trough implants as narrow as 0.8 m are effective in improving charge transfer performance. We find that the charge transfer efficiency of these devices drops significantly as detector temperature is reduced from 30C to 60C. We point out the potential of previously demonstrated curved-detector fabrication technology for simplifying the design of the Lynx high-definition imager. We discuss the expected detector radiation tolerance at these relatively high transfer rates. Finally, we note that the high pixel aspect ratio depletion depth pixel size 91 of our test devices is similar to that expected for Lynx detectors and discuss implications of this geometry for x-ray performance and noise requirements.
- Electrical and Electronic Equipment