Accession Number:

AD1090553

Title:

Russia's Hostile Measures: Combating Russian Gray Zone Aggression Against NATO in the Contact, Blunt, and Surge Layers of Competition

Descriptive Note:

Technical Report

Corporate Author:

RAND ARROYO CENTER SANTA MONICA CA SANTA MONICA United States

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

2020-01-01

Pagination or Media Count:

95.0

Abstract:

This appendix accompanies the RAND report Russias Hostile Measures Combating Russian Gray Zone Aggression Against NATO in the Contact, Blunt, and Surge Layers of Competition and a second appendix presenting detailed case studies of Russian uses of hostile measures in the post-Soviet era. Both are available online at www.rand.orgtRR2539. Here, we present ahistorical overview of Soviet hostile measures between 1917 and the end of the Cold War, with a brief discussion of relevant pre-Soviet history. The history and evolution of Russias hostile measures provide context to help North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO leaders and those of its member states better understand current Russian behavior. We establish a timeline, sketch out Soviet-era institutional actors and capability development, identify broad security challenges that have motivated action over time, and describe the evolution and institutionalization of hostile-measures tactics as employed in several regional engagements.

Subject Categories:

  • Government and Political Science
  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE