Primary Blast Injury Criteria for Animal/Human TBI Models using Field Validated Shock Tubes
[Technical Report, Annual Report]
New Jersey Institute of Technology
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Blast-induced Traumatic Brain Injury bTBI is a leading cause of morbidity in soldiers on the battlefield and training sites with long-term neurological and psychological pathologies. We characterized in details of the mechanisms triggered by loss of the blood-brain barrier BBBintegrity extravasation of exogeneous markers, depleted tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-5, and blood serum levels of endogenous proteins. we established there exist complementary temporal trends. The expression of these proteins decreases in the brain tissue homogenates, which is accompanied by elevation of their levels in the blood serum. The effects of oxidative stress on the BBB integrity and repair were also evaluated. The influx of the exogeneous matter into the brain parenchyma triggers a cascade of inflammatory response. We developed a refined model of the rat head under shock wave loading. A comprehensive convergence study and extensive model refinement resulted in a model which reproduced spatial and temporal maps of the pressure, stress, and strain within the rat brain at three blast overpressures 100, 130, and 190 kPa. We demonstrated control over shock wave pressure profile and established a set of conditions where peak overpressure remains constant with gradation of impulse. This level of control is yet to be demonstrated in the available literature on the subject. The developed dose-response models indicate predicted mortality rate is shifted towards lower peak overpressures at higher impulse values. This means that both blast overpressure and impulse are critical in bTBI and not just BOP. This report covers findings of the year 3 of the project tasks 8, 9 and 10 and it summarizes the findings of all the tasks 1 to 7 of years 1 and 2.
- Medicine and Medical Research