Integrated Water Planning Through Building Level Cascade of Water Use
U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) Champaign United States
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This demonstration project investigated the integration of state-of-the-art water saving technologies for reducing water demand at the building level. A cascade approach was used, whereby technologies were considered for treating and reusing water to meet demands more efficiently by matching the appropriate water quality with the appropriate use. The study investigated the integration of the cascade approach with the more conventional, but not yet fully implemented, approach of water conservation, which allowed for measurement of the relative benefits and costs of emerging versus more proven technologies. Based on demonstration site factors, the project focused primarily on efficient water fixtures and graywater reuse technologies. Most of the technologies studied were at the bathroom scale, though one building scale system was evaluated as well. The study found that 1 water conservation fixtures achieved a savings rate of 14 as compared to the target rate of 30 2 graywater reuse systems studied in this project require further improvement before their widespread adoption can be recommended 3 the bathroom scale under-sink graywater reuse system required further technical improvements to meet some of the water quality requirements for toilet flushing.
- Water Pollution and Control