The Phantom Corps Counterattack: A Study of Doctrine, Language, and Operational Art
Technical Report,25 Jun 2018,23 May 2019
U.S. Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth United States
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Doctrine influences how the US Army fights, by guiding actions of individuals and units during the uncertainty of combat, and various other martial affairs in preparedness for the nature of war. The US Army fought World War II applying the doctrine of two key publications Field Service Regulations, Field Manual 100-5, Operations 1941 and 1944, and 100-15 Larger Units 1942. The conceptual framework created by these doctrines entailed strategy and tactics. Later in the Cold War, the US Armys AirLand Battle doctrines conceptual framework partitioned war into three levels the strategic, operational, and tactical. Operational art emerges into the US Army lexicon as a tool for creating a shared understanding in applying the new conceptual framework of the operational level of war. Commanders and their staffs apply operational art to bridge the strategic purpose with tactical actions. Today, Field Manual 3-0, Operations demonstrates that doctrine continues to evolve to reduce uncertainty and is increasingly relying on the operational art lessons from the past, specifically in large-scale combat. Applying todays conceptual framework to the US Armys largest battles counterattacking corps provides a new analysis on doctrine, language, operational art, and the relief of Bastogne, Belgium.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics