The Allies' Practice of Operational Art During the Italian Campaign
Technical Report,26 Jun 2017,24 May 2018
US Army School for Advanced Military Studies Fort Leavenworth United States
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Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States and forced President Franklin Roosevelt to honor his Europe first pledge to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. In doing so, the United States and British collaborated on the approach necessary to defeat the Axis Powers. After many disagreements and compromises, the Allies decided on an approach to invade southern Europe to set conditions for the decisive battle to occur on the eastern or western front in Germany. To accomplish this, the Allies decided to invade Italy in September 1943. Known as the Italian Campaign, the invasion of southern Europe contributed greatly to eventual defeat of both the Italian and German armies. The Allies effectively used todays concept of operational art by arranging tactical actions to achieve desired strategic effects. Throughout the campaign, the Allies successfully demonstrated the importance of end state and conditions, lines of operation, and culmination and operational reach. In addition, the campaign provides an example of applying an operational framework to organize efforts across the environment.
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics