Development of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Disorders
Center for Advanced Molecular Detection, 59th Medical Wing JBSA-Lackland United States
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Stem cells are those that can differentiate into other functionally varied cell types, such as nerve,muscle, bone, and skin cells. Stem cells represent various temporal and spatial stages in organismal development, and therefore their capacity to differentiate into other cells is variable. Embryonic stem cells are those that are isolated from a very early embryonic development, the blastocyst stage. Such cells retain the capacity to form all tissue types of an organism. Adult stem cells are those isolated from different tissues once such tissues have definitively formed, including any adult stage. Such cells have different capacities to differentiate into other cell types, but no capacity to form all tissue types that make an organism. A common type of adult stem cells is the mesenchymal stem cells MSCs, typically isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. Due to their capacity to differentiate into other cell types, stem cells have potential therapeutic utility in replacing various terminally differentiated cells when such cells are lost due to injury, disease, or aging. However, when adult stem cells are isolated as primary populations, they do not exhibit uniform differentiation properties some have greater differentiation capacity, some lesser, and some may even lack any such capacity. Using human mesenchymal stem cells, this project aimed to develop subpopulations and individual lines with greater differentiation capacity. Further, the work also aimed to identify protein and gene expression markers characteristic of the cells with greater potency. The MSCs for this work were purchased from a commercial source. These cells were at passage two. The results presented here show that these MSCs had the capacity to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes.
- Anatomy and Physiology