TARDEC Direct Energy Deposition Technical Analysis Design of Experiments, Part 1, Phase 2
Technical Report,01 May 2017,01 Jun 2017
U.S. ARMY TARDEC WARREN United States
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TARDEC Production Lifecycle Engineering PLE Group is conducting a Design of Experiments DOE to determine a standard process to optimize parameters settings to validate coatings and repairs conducted with Direct Energy Deposition DED technology. Phase 2 is a continuation of the phase 1 of the TARDEC DED Design of Experiments to complete the fundamental understanding of pattern effects on deposition quality. Materials used in the deposition were Stellite 21 powder and an ASTM A514 steel plate. Four patterns were selected, two of which had been created by TARDEC personnel. Each of the patterns were designed to evaluate the changes in porosity within the material cores. Two patterns were modified from the initial recipes in phase 1 of the DOE to narrow each passs line spacing. The other two patterns consisted of different in-plane layer offsets. These offsets allowed for the line passes of the layer being deposited to be placed between the line passes of the layer below it in an effort to eliminate the pores.After analyzing the resulting surfaces and cores for quality and defects, the offset recipes demonstrated the best results. The LongitudinalTransverse pattern of recipe 19 showed an increase in porosity at the fusion zone and between the layers. The Longitudinal pattern of recipe 21 showed both a significant increase and decrease in porosity between the layer line passes. Areas of the deposition were almost free of porosity, while others were heavy with porosity. These areas of increased porosity for both patterns suggested an unknown variable may have affected the depositions. The pattern of porosity also indicated a repeated error may have occurred during the DM3D 405D operations. The two off-set Longitudinal patterns, recipes 22 and 23, showed significantly less porosity in both cross sectioned specimens when compared to the original Longitudinal pattern, of recipes 17 and 21.
- Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods
- Miscellaneous Materials