Accession Number:



Joint Force Operations in GPS Denied or Degraded Environment

Descriptive Note:

[Technical Report, Research Paper]

Corporate Author:

Naval War College

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



Since 1997, the Department of Defense has recognized the vulnerability of the Global Positioning System to jamming. Since 2011, technologies to simulate and override the signal a GPS receiver receives have been developed and now are in use. This paper looks at how the loss of GPS, either through jamming or spoofing, affects the Joint Force and its operations. Using a Position, Navigation and Timing framework, major weapon systems, launch platforms and critical processes are examined. This examination details how combat operations, while possible, will be significantly more challenging. Impacts on weapon accuracies and launch platforms navigation systems can be minimized through effective training. The impact on communication and coordination between multiple units and the resulting fog and friction created is harder to define without real-life research and practice. Current and ongoing Joint Force preparations for GPS-denied or degraded environments through two main lines of effort are described. The paper concludes with recommendations on where the Joint Force should focus to ensure it maintains its current capabilities.

Subject Categories:

  • Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics

Distribution Statement:

[A, Approved For Public Release]