Fabrication of High Energy Density Tin/Carbon Anode Using Reduction Expansion Synthesis and Aerosol through Plasma Techniques
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States
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The aim of this study was to fabricate tincarbon SnC battery anodes using a novel approach, reduction expansion synthesis RES, and test their performance as electrodes in lithium or sodium batteries. A second preparation route, the Aerosol-Through-Plasma ATP method, was also employed for comparison. The specimens generated were characterized, before and after cycling, using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The RES technique was successful in creating remarkably small ca. 5 nm nano-scale particles of tin dispersed on the carbon support. The use of the electrodes as part of coin cell batteries resulted in capacitance values of 320 mAhg and 110mAhg for lithium-ion and sodium-ion batteries, respectively. Nano-sized Sn particles were found before and after cycling. It is believed that bonds between metal atoms and dangling carbon produced via the reduction of the carbon surface during RES were responsible for the materials ability to withstand stresses during lithiation, avoid volumetric expansion, and prevent disintegration after hundreds of cycles. When tin loading in SnC was increased from 10 to 20, an increase of capacitance from 280 mAhg to320mAhg was observed thus, increased tin loading is recommended for future studies. Tincarbon produced using ATP presented morphology consistent with stable electrodes, although battery testing was not completed because of the difficulty of producing the material in sufficient quantity.
- Electrical and Electronic Equipment