High-Frequency Mapping of the IPV6 Internet Using YARRP
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey United States
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Both the number of hosts using Internet Protocol version 6 IPv6, and the volume of IPv6 traffic, has increased exponentially since2012.With this adoption, the IPv6 routed infrastructure becomes an increasingly important component of global critical infrastructureand network policy. Unfortunately, the tools and techniques used to perform active network topology discovery were designed forInternet Protocol version 4 IPv4, leading to a potentially opaque view of the IPv6 Internet. In this thesis, we extend nascent work onstateless high-speed IPv4 active topology probing to develop a new IPv6 traceroute method Yelling At Random Routers Progressivelyversion 6 Yarrp6. Yarrp6 randomly permutes the set of IPv6 targets and hop counts to distribute load, thereby helping to avoidIPv6 response rate limiting. Further, we encode state in the IPv6 payload to permit Yarrp6 to both match responses with probes anduse different probe transport protocols. Via active experimentation on the public IPv6 Internet, we compare the results obtained fromYarrp6 against the current state-of-the-art IPv6 topology mapping tool. We show that Yarrp6 can discover topology at more than anorder of magnitude faster than previously possible. Finally, we conduct a study of the effect of transport layer protocol on forwardInternet Protocol IP path inference to determine what protocol is best used for active IPv6 topology discovery.
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