A Game of Cat and Mouse: Intelligence and Dynamic Targeting in Operation Allied Force
School of Advanced Air And Space Studies, Air University Maxwell AFB United States
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This study provides an analysis of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR operations supporting dynamic targeting during Operation Allied Force. First, the author examines the development of Air Force thought and capability during the 1990s regarding dynamic targeting and intelligence in the aftermath of the Gulf War. Next the author traces the development of the North Atlantic Treaty Organizations NATO coercive use of air power to address ethnic conflict following the dissolution of Yugoslavia. With this background, the author analyzes the integration of ISR into the planning and execution of NATOs air war over Serbia in 1999. The chosen strategies of the enemy challenged the Air Forces intelligence capabilities developed to fight a conventional forceon-force battle. Based on NATOs experience in Kosovo, the author assesses that intelligence should be integrated into planning and operations as early as possible to maximize effectiveness. Intelligence airmen should also embrace a multi-domain approach to providing battlespace awareness by deliberately leveraging all assets at their disposal. Furthermore, ISR employment must account for multiple variables including the reactive nature of the enemy and the limitations of the operating environment. The author relates the challenges faced by NATO airmen in Serbia to the modern security environment where operations will be increasingly conducted in contested environments against resourceful and adaptive enemies.
- Military Intelligence
- Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
- Military Forces and Organizations