Nonadiabatic Eigenfunctions Can Have Amplitude, Signed Conical Nodes, or Signed Higher Order Nodes at a Conical Intersection with Circular Symmetry
Journal Article - Open Access
COLORADO UNIV AT BOULDER BOULDER United States
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Numerically exact nonadiabatic eigenfunctions are computed for a two-dimensional conical intersection with circular symmetry, for which a pseudorotation quantum number is conserved and all eigenstates are doubly degenerate. In the calculations reported here, the conical intersection is submerged, with energy below the zero point level. The complete real-valued vibrational-electronic eigenfunctions are visualized using Hunters exact factorization for the total vibrational amplitude factor and color for the electronic factor. The zero-point levels have nonzero amplitude at the conical intersection. Nodes in the degenerate nonadiabatic eigenfunctions are classified as accidental if they can be moved or removed by a change in degenerate basis and as essential if they cannot. An integer electronic index defines the order of the nodes for nonadiabatic eigenfunctions by simple closed counterclockwise line integrals. Higher eigenstates can have accidental conical nodes around the conical intersection and essential nodes of varying circular orders at the conical intersection. The signs of the essential nodes are all opposite the sign of the conical intersection and the signed node orders obey sum rules. Even for submerged conical intersections, the appearance of the exact eigenstates motivates use of signed, half-odd-integral, pseudorotation quantum numbers j. Essential nodes of absolute order j 12 are located on the conical intersection for j greater than or equal to 32. The eigenfunctions around essential first order nodes are right circular cones with their vertex at the conical intersection.
- Theoretical Mathematics