Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments
Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific San Diego United States
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The Department of Defense DoD has custody and responsibility for human safety and environmental stewardship for coastal ranges, many of which have underwater sites that are known to contain underwater military munitions UWMM, such as discarded military munitions and unexploded ordnance, as a result of historic military activities. In addition to explosive blast safety considerations, regulators are increasingly concerned about potential ecological impacts of MC on the marine environment. Although UWMM have the potential to corrode, breach, and leak munitions constituents MCs such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene TNT and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-s-triazine RDX into aquatic environments, several challenges prevent accurate assessment of environmental exposure, based on the uncertainties associated with munition presence, condition, propensity for leakage, rapid transformation of some MC, and likelihood for highly localized exposure. This demonstration focused on field validation of commercially available passive sampling devices, specifically Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers POCIS, for estimating time averaged water concentrations at underwater sites. Previously calibrated for detection of MC in laboratory-based studies, this report provides new results from further optimization efforts, and provides results from two field studies, including a positive control field study in Santa Rosa Sound, Florida, and a larger scale effort conducted in a bay adjacent to the former Vieques Nava Training Range at Vieques Island, Puerto Rico.
- Ammunition and Explosives