This document establishes a taxonomy for categorizing and consistently defining physical injuries that are included in public health surveillance, monitoring, and reporting. The taxonomy includes a framework and standardized definitions that are operationalized with specific medical diagnostic codes International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification ICD-10-CM. The taxonomy promotes the future standardization and comparability of epidemiologic efforts and will help prioritize injury prevention strategies. For example, calendar year 2016 medical encounter data for U.S. Army Active Duty personnel including Reserve, National Guard inpatient and outpatient visits including purchased care demonstrates that injuries caused by mechanical energy transfer far outnumber injuries from any other cause 97 percent. Of these, MSK injuries comprise the vast majority 83 percent, and most are cumulative microtraumatic injuries 69 percent. These cumulative microtraumatic injuries are sometimes referred to as overuse injuries since they are often associated with the excessive, lower intensity repetitive forces experienced by Soldiers during their physical training. In comparison to mechanical injuries, non-mechanical injuries present a much smaller magnitude of medial encounters. As an example, environmental heat and cold injuries comprise less than one-half of one percent 0.5 percent of all Army injuries.