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Definitions of Frequency and Timing Terms, Satellite Navigation and Timing Systems, and the Behavior and Analyses of Precision Crystal and Atomic Frequency Standards and their Characteristics

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Technical Report

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Range Commanders Council White Sands Missile Range United States

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Over the past several decades, atomic clocks have advanced from the laboratory stage to large-scale use in government and industry. There have also been significant improvements in quartz crystal oscillator technology. The improvement in time transfer techniques has largely been due to the improvement in frequency standards. In this document, an effort was made to provide substantial agreement with the accepted definitions found in the literature, as authored by leading experts in the field of precise time and frequency techniques. The terms and definitions contained herein relied heavily on the references at the end of this document. This document contains definitions of frequency and timing terms, time transfer techniques and analysis, and behavior of crystal and atomic frequency standards. The document serves as a common reference for acceptable definitions, current terminology, and proper use of frequency and timing terms. It is also a guide for preparing procurement specifications and requirements for time and frequency equipment as well as preparing other technical documents. Use of this document will help greatly in mitigating uncertainty, ambiguity, and misunderstanding of terminologies.

Subject Categories:

  • Navigation and Guidance

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