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Characterization and Detection of Vector-borne Diseases in Endemic Transmission Areas

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Technical Report

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Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Bethesda United States

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Vector-borne diseases contribute significantly to the global burden of infectious diseases and remain a major public health challenge worldwide. Detection and surveillance of the pathogen and vector are critical for the control of vector-borne diseases. Japanese encephalitis virus JEV and malaria cause a significant portion of disease and mortality due to vector-borne diseases globally. The research described in this dissertation aims to improve detection methods for both the vector and pathogens that facilitate JEV and malaria transmission in an effort to advance vector-borne disease control and potential elimination. First, we developed an ecological niche model to estimate the distribution of the JEV vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, based on environmental variables and known vector locations in endemic regions. We analyzed the overlap between Japanese encephalitis JE cases and predicted prevalence of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus distribution as well as the prevalence of predicted vector habitat within rice fields. Our novel ecological niche model can be used to target regions for vector control strategies and vaccine campaigns in order to reduce JE disease burden within the human population.

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  • Medicine and Medical Research

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