Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Integrated to All-Digital CMOS Circuits
Journal Article - Open Access
MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington United States
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MIT Lincoln Laboratory has been a world leader in the development of specialized highperformance chargecoupleddevice imagers CCDs. 1 The CCDs have outstanding performance and support advanced functions such as chargedomain image stabilization, electronic shuttering, and blooming control. The ultimate sensitivity limitation of a CCD is set by the readout noise of the output amplifier that senses the charge packets and converts them to analog voltage levels. The faster the readout rate, the more severe the readout noise penalty. This sensitivity limitation becomes important in photonstarved applications, such as night vision or hightemporalresolution imaging. Interest in such scenarios lead to Lincolns development of photoncounting image sensors, primarily based on arrays of customfabricated Geigermode avalanche photodiodes GMAPDs integrated with alldigital CMOS readout circuits. The term photon counting is used broadly here to mean digital recording of a photon arrival within the pixel circuit. The pixel could be designed to either time stamp photons or count them.
- Electrical and Electronic Equipment