Bottom Backscattering Strengths Measured in Shallow and Deep Water
Technical Report,01 Aug 1993,01 Sep 2016
NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC WASHINGTON United States
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For a low-frequency LF 1 kHz or mid-frequency MF 1 to 10 kHz active sonar, scattering from the seafloor, coupled with propagation conditions, can severely limit the detectability of returns from features of interest. Acoustic scattering from the seabed can be a complex mix of surface roughness and volume heterogeneity contributions, so that reverberation levels can vary dramatically, depending on the local geology. The Naval Research Laboratory NRL performed LF and MF, direct-path bottom backscattering strength BBS measurements at 105 sites over 6 experiments in 5 distinct environments from 1993 to 2005. This report presents the BBS results from these experiments, as well as empirical fits to the MF results.
- Acoustic Detection and Detectors