Comparative Human Health and Environmental Toxicology Review of Seven Candidate Obscurant Smokes for Replacement of M83 Grenade
Technical Report,01 Nov 2013,01 Aug 2015
Director, ECBC APG United States
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The goal of this effort was to review available information regarding human health toxicology, ecotoxicology, and environmental fate and transport data for the component materials and reaction products from seven candidate smokes for replacement of the M83 grenade. A literature search and data survey were performed to initially assess candidate materials. Potential human health risks were estimated, including reported toxicity effects of oral, inhalation, dermal, and ocular exposures developmental or reproductive effects such as the potential for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis and modes and mechanisms of toxicity. Estimated potential ecotoxicological risks included effects caused by exposures of aquatic and terrestrial species of different trophic levels to component compounds and reaction products. The primary component compounds of concern to human health were hexachloroethane and the aluminummagnesium alloy. The primary reaction product of concern for human health risk was inhalation of titanium tetrachloride. The greatest risk to ecological receptors and environmental habitats was from excessive levels of soluble aluminum salts under acidic poorly buffered conditions in soil and water pH 4.9 and hydrochloric acid. Study results provide information that serves the decision-making process toward selection of a less-toxic obscurant and should not be considered a definitive analysis of candidate smoke toxicity.