Pharmacokinetics of IM,IV and IO Atropine in Normovolemic and Hypovolemic Swine
Technical Report,01 Jul 2009,01 Jun 2011
Brooke Army Medical Center San Antonio United States
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Purpose This study compared the pharmacokinetics of IV, IO, and IM atropine in cardiovascular collapse to determine the extent to which hypovolemic shock retards IM atropine absorption and if IO administration is an effective alternative.