Pilot Study of the Pharmacokinetics (PK) and Pharmacodynamics (PD) of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in a Swine (Sus scrofa) and Sheep (Ovis aries) Model
DAVID GRANT USAF MEDICAL CENTER TRAVIS AFB CA TRAVIS AFB
Pagination or Media Count:
INTRODUCTION TXA is routinely administered by the intravenous IV route. However, in a field setting establishing IV access can be difficult, so we examined the pharmacokinetics of TXA administered to pigs and sheep by intraosseous IO and intramuscular IM routes, compared to the IV route. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two cohorts of 3 pigs and sheep were administered one gram TXA by the IV, IM or IO route, respectively. Twelve serum samples were obtained over a 6-hour period, and TXA concentrations were determined. Traditional compartmental PK modeling was performed to determine drug pharmacokinetics. RESULTS Plots of TXA concentrations in serum from pigs and sheep demonstrated that the curves are similar for IV, IO and IM routes. There were differences in bioavailability depending on route and species, and the drug half-life was shorter in pigs, compared to sheep. CONCLUSIONS Based on this pilot study, TXA delivered by IO and IM routes has potential to be a viable alternative to IV administration. Investigations should be expanded to human studies to further explore these alternative routes of administration of TXA. More data is needed to determine ideal dosages via these novel routes as well as the bioavailability profile during ongoing hemorrhage.
- Medicine and Medical Research