Demographic Variability of Inhalation Mechanics: A Review
Technical Report,01 Nov 2010,28 Sep 2011
Applied Research Associates, Inc. Arlington United States
Pagination or Media Count:
This report reviews and documents the demographic variability of inhalation mechanics in human populations, particularly with respect to the deposition of particulates in the respiratory tract. The goal is to enhance existing inhalation and respiratory mechanics models to account for population demographic variables in order to improve fidelity of casualty estimation in the Joint Effects Model JEM and of human effects modeling for medical planning and operational effects tools. The demographic factors influencing inhalation mechanics considered are age, gender, body size and height, ethnicity, smoking, altitude exposure, pregnancy, and lung disease. For each factor considered, relevant literature is reviewed, findings are summarized, and consequences for inhalation modeling are explored. Sample calculations using the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry MPPD model are used to demonstrate the consequences of considering demographic factors on causality estimation for a hypothetical attack scenario it is shown that for a particle size of 3 micrometers, overall casualties will be over-predicted if the demographic factor of age is not taken into account due to differing particle deposition fractions in the lungs across age groups.
- Anatomy and Physiology